Good English for a global audience

Most people say good English means using:

  • Correct grammar.
  • Correct punctuation.
  • Correct usage.
  • Correct spelling (of words in written work).

However, most people would be hard-pressed to identify precisely which rules of grammar, punctuation, and usage must be followed in writing and speaking or which words must be spelled correctly for the writing to be "good English."

Many times correctness is more a matter of appropriateness than of compliance with a grammar rules: If the audience readily understands the message and are not offended by the language in which it is presented, that message is correct enough.

Unfortunately, in today’s world, it is hard to know what is appropriate.

Many times an audience is global rather than local.

Many times writers/speakers do not know who their audience is.

Many audiences do not know how to access—or do not have access to—references to help them interpret non-standard language such as abbreviations, idioms, and jargon.

In a global economy, our students will have to work with many people who will not understand the breezy, informal, idiomatic, and often sloppy language use that characterizes American culture.

Living in a global society, we must hold ourselves and our students to a higher standard of correctness, much closer to textbook rules, than we might have demanded in their speech and writing 10 years ago.

Fortunately, we do not have to teach (or know) all the rules for comma placement. We do need to know and teach those rules that, if violated, are most likely to impede communication of a message.

Research into the writing people do reveals a high concentration of a very few errors. (See Connors and Lunsford, Lunsford and Lunsford, for example.) Most writers’ repeated errors are violations of rules taught in elementary school, such as confusing its and it’s or failing to mark the boundaries of a sentence with a capital letter and closing punctuation.

We must teach those few rules thoroughly, until they are as much a part of our students’ mental processes as their elbows are parts of their bodies.

Bottom line: To equip students to live in a global society, we can teach fewer rules of "good English" but must teach those few far more thoroughly than ever before.

© 2008 Linda G. Aragoni This information previously appeared at Ezine Articles.

Are you a technologically literate teacher?

blog post title against collage of technology graphics

Could you, for example, walk into the office of a typical small business somewhere in America — a construction company, for example, or an independently-owned convenience store with fewer than 10 workers — and begin work immediately doing routine work, such as answering the phone and taking messages, using the office computer for recording receipts and disbursements, and faxing documents to state agencies?

Naturally, you’ll say you’d need some training. That’s undoubtedly true.

What’s also true, however, is that small business people expect college-educated people to know or be able to pick up very quickly skills that people with a high school education do every day.

I believe that being able to pick up new skills quickly is going to be the most sought-after attribute of 21st century workers.

The last time I tried to hire an editorial assistant for my publishing business, I asked people who’d lived in this community all their lives for suggestions. An ex-teacher was highly recommended.

She was interested in the work and the pay until I told her we use Open Office rather than Microsoft products because that’s what my customers use.

That was a deal breaker.

“I’d have to go take a course to learn how to use it,” she said.

The woman might have been a wonderful teacher, but she didn’t have the technology skills for an entry-level job in a small business.

If you have to go take a training course in a software program before you can use it, you can’t handle an entry-level job in a small business.

Folks, one word processing program is pretty much like another.

And if your skills are up to the challenge of the entry-level work in 2017, can you honestly say you’re able to prepare your students for today’s workplace, let alone tomorrow’s?

Related reading:

Work Experience as Education

The Collaboration Model for Entry Level Jobs

Dear Applicant: The reason you weren’t hired.


Required knowledge for 2037

What can we be sure students will need to know 20 years from now?

I’ve been working at revamping content from my “you can teach writing” website begun in 2008 — a date that seems like an eternity ago — I’ve been taking a hard look at what from that bygone time is still valid.

Obviously anything that has passed its sell-buy date in 2017 has to be scrapped.

I’ve deleted the “current events” references and the rotted links: Information expires.

Now what?

How do I decide what to keep?

Skills are more durable than information, so I’m starting by looking at them.
What skills will students need 20 years from now?

I’ve started making a list of what I’m pretty sure students will need to be able to do on their own without the benefit of a teacher/supervisor 20 years from now:

That seems to me to be a reasonable method of determining what of my 2008 website content (which, truth to tell, was the accumulation of 40 years of experience as a writer, editor, and writing teacher) is durable.

In 2037 students will need to be able to:

Here’s in the order in which I thought of them are my ideas of what students will certainly be required to do in 2037.

I invite you to share your reactions in the comments section.

  • learn by reading
  • write to communicate
  • communicate by speaking
  • learn from listening
  • learn by observing
  • formulate useful questions
  • translate information from one communication medium into another
  • read and write a language other than their native tongue (language here can include computer code)
  • communicate via images
  • curate content
  • control machines
  • collaborate to achieve goals
  • get along with people unlike themselves
  • learn without a live teacher present
  • adjust their behavior in response to their learning
  • identify problems
  • formulate solutions to problems in ways that are testable
  • distinguish between causation and correlation
  • find people able and willing to share their expertise
  • distinguish between essential and non-essential activities
  • distinguish between what people need and what they want
  • manage their time well

Help me out.

What have I missed that everyone will need to do? Math skills for sure, but which?
What are essential skills in the social sciences? in the fine arts?
What’s on the list that is dubious?

Can Your Students Work in THIS Century?

I’ve ranted several times on this blog about the need for teachers to keep up with the kinds of skills students need for jobs other than middle management at Fortune  500  companies (as executive assistant to Marissa Mayer, for example) or in the food service industry (waitstaff or dishwasher).

After a conversation with someone who is discovering how poorly prepared local honor students are for working in today’s economy, I dug out a response I wrote to someone who inquired about working with me. I’ve used this response repeatedly because I’ve discovered the typical applicant for a job with me has no idea what working online means.

Tell me what you could do for my business. Things to consider:

  • What’s your experience working online? Can you work independently with no one else in the room? Are you comfortable in a job that is done almost entirely online? Can you work with people you have never met, making sure they are informed about the work you are doing, what needs to be done, what you need help with?
  • What’s your level of technical expertise? Can you tell/show someone in Australia how to unzip a file? If you get a phone call from someone in Kentucky, can you talk them through buying and downloading an ebook? If I told you to view the source of a web page could you do it?
  • What are your favorite software/online programs for creating online surveys? online newsletters? website creation? photo editing? blogging? online calendars? screen capture, creating diagrams/illustrations? creating charts?
  • What’s your experience with social media? Are you on LinkedIn? Twitter? What blogging platforms are you comfortable using? Familiar with Hootsuite?
  • My vendors and I use OpenOffice, Zoho Mail. Would using them present any problems for you?
  • Do you have any experience with HTML coding? with CSS?
  • Are you a good reader? Can you spot errors in grammar, spelling, punctuation, formatting?
  • What are your business skills (financial records, HR, marketing, research, etc.)?

By the time they graduate high school, every student should be able to give some specific examples of their skills in each of those areas.  Some of those tasks are required learning for students as young as sixth grade in New York State, where I live.

If you are a teacher, administrator, education policy maker, or community leader and you are not competent in some subset of each of those areas, you are one of the roadblocks keeping students from being college and career ready.

Is the tech use infographic reliable?

An infographic on students’ use of technology is zooming around cyberspace this morning. Twitter users among the ed tech and digital-tools-in-the-classroom gurus are retweeting that “Twitter enabled classrooms produce better grades.”

Come on folks, let’s apply those 21st century information analysis skills you’re always saying students need to use.  I don’t expect tech-obsessed Matthew Panzarino over at The Next Web to read analytically for education information, but I do expect educators like Miguel Guhlin to pay attention to the nuances.

The source of the infographic is If you visited the site, you know it’s a directory of online educational programs that’s supported by those programs’ advertising. The About page gives no information about the site owners. Those two facts alone should set off alerts that the information may not be reliable.

Did you notice that the individual facts on the infographic are not cited? Does that suggest anything to you?

Did you check the references listed on the infographic? They are not hyperlinks, so you have to retype the URLs. If you do get to the sources, what do you find?

One source listed is EducatedNation. EducatedNation should not be confused with the NBC News site EducationNation. EducatedNation is a blog whose about page says it “consists of two writers,” whose names are not given.

The EducatedNation piece consists primarily of a news release from CourseSmart™, a company that sells digital textbooks and other digital course materials, about results of a study done for them by Wakefield Research. Most of the facts on the infographic are from this news release.

The next largest source of information for the infographic is the Pearson Foundation. You’ll remember Pearson as the greedy, publicly traded, for-profit educational publishing company that Web2.0 educators are always criticizing for taking money away from public education.

Got that?

The two main sources of the infographic are companies that sell the products the infographic describes.

I’m pretty sure educators would think there was something fishy about a study commissioned by a drug company that found the company’s new pill was the greatest discovery since aspirin.

It’s instructive to compare Wakefield’s summary of the study results, posted to its blog, with the CourseSmart™ spin on those results. CourseSmart™ focus is that digital devices are about to take over the world and educators shouldn’t be left behind. Wakefield says “hardcopies still reign supreme” while predicting “a shift toward more digital textbooks among college students can be expected in the future.”

The section of the infographic that Twitter fans are emoting over says:

Students in classes that use Twitter to increase engagement have been found to average 5 grade points higher than those in normal classes.

I spent over an hour finding the original source for that. I thought it might be Rey Junco blog listed in the sources, since Junco specializes in students of social media in higher education. However, it turned out that the URL cited on the infographic leads to  another infographic that is based on Rey Junco’s study comparing students in college classes using Twitter and those in regular college classes.

Once more, ed techies, ask yourselves whether as educators you’d let students get away with such sloppy work as wrongly attributing a source. If you do and your students end up in my first year English class, there will be hell to pay.

(If you are one of those cutting-edge, think-outside-the-box folks who says we should get rid of grades entirely, you should also ask yourself why the fact that a technology improves grades make the technology seem valuable to you. I know you won’t ask yourself that, but you should.)

Finally, what you’ve been waiting for, the place where I finally say finally.

The introduction to the infographic says:

While it’s no secret that college students are addicted to technology, the specifics of their gadget usage have never been scientifically studied — until now. While the extent of students’ dependence on tech might be a tad alarming, there’s good news too: much of their screen time is spent learning.

Notice, please, that infographic doesn’t say students are spending screen time learning course material. In fact, the material emphasizes that using digital technologies mean students spend less time studying.

Also notice that all the data on the infographic is about college students behavior.  No matter how many times you retweet the link to the infographic, you cannot make the data apply to a third grade class  in Tuscaloosa, Alabama.