Farewell, dear readers

Many of you have subscribed to this blog for years. Some of you have given me valuable feedback and badly needed encouragement. Several of you have tagged after me from the time I began my first website, You-Can-Teach-Writing.com back in 1988.

I’m deeply indebted to all of you.

As Covid ceases to be a pandemic and, if the scientists are right, becomes endemic like seasonal flu, I suspect a good many of you will be leaving teaching. Some of you will leave because you’re reached retirement age and coping with Covid has left you mentally and emotionally exhausted. I suspect many more will leave because the mental and emotional exhaustion caused by Covid-caused has been compounded by disillusionment with public education. I hope each of you will find time to rest and recharge. Then I hope you’ll find a place to use your experience in settings that provide you with work that gives you pleasure.

I haven’t much hope to offer those of my readers who cannot afford to quit teaching now, except to say that Ukrainian teachers whose homes and schools were bombed to rubble are still teaching their students. As bad as your situation is, it can’t be that bad. What you must do, you can do.

With all best wishes,

Linda G. Aragoni

Copyright Basics for Teaching

If you do not have a clear understanding of the U.S. Copyright law, especially that which applies to Internet resources, you might inadvertently be teaching your students to steal without realizing it. Here are the most basic facts you and your students need to know to avoid copyright infringement.

Copyright basics: what can or can’t be copyrighted

Copyright is literally the right to copy information. In most cases, that right belongs to the person who created and “fixed” the work in its finished form. Original literary, dramatic, musical, and artistic works can be copyrighted. That covers a wide range of material such as poetry, novels, photographs, cartoons, movies, songs, computer software, and architecture.

Material that is not original but copied from others cannot be given copyright protection.

Facts and ideas cannot be copyrighted, nor can operating procedures. However, the way facts, ideas, and procedures are expressed may be able to be copyrighted. That is why dozens of poems saying spring is the season of renewal can each be afforded copyright protection: each one expresses the basic idea differently.

Other items that cannot be copyrighted are discoveries and inventions, which can be given patent protection, and words, phrases, and symbols and designs used to identify the source of goods or services. Those can be given trademark protection.

Four mistaken ideas about copyright

Many people hear the term “public domain” and mistakenly believe that material that is on public display, such as material in blogs or websites, is OK to copy. That is not true. The term public domain has nothing to do with the accessibility of the material: it usually means any copyright on the material has expired.

Many people think that unless something bears a copyright notice they can duplicate and share the information freely. That is not true. Copyright legally exists as soon as a work is created and fixed in some tangible, perceptible form. It is not necessary for a work to be registered with the copyright office or even for the work to contain a copyright notice.

Some people mistakenly believe that they may copy material from the Internet as long as they don’t make any money from using the material. That is not true either.

Other people think as long as they share the material just with a few people, it is OK to copy it. That is definitely not true. Sharing copyrighted material with even one other person is an infringement of the copyright owner’s legal rights.

Fair use is limited to small portions

Under a provision of the copyright law called fair use, you or your students can legally reproduce a small portion of a copyrighted work in a review or a discussion of the work, such as a research paper. The law, however, does not define what a “small portion” is. Many scholars consider fair use to be less than 10 or 20 percent of the whole work, but copyright holders are not so generous.

It is safe to assume that anything which can be downloaded as a single item should not be copied and shared even with one other person without prior written permission of the copyright holder even if the name of the copyright holder is clearly displayed on the material. That means a single photograph, a single web page, a single PDF, a single cartoon or this single blog post should not be shared unless the user has secured the copyright holder’s permission in advance.

Hyperlink use is acceptable

It is acceptable to provide a hyperlink to copyrighted material without notifying the copyright holder in advance. That allows the copyright holder to retain control over the material, which is the purpose of copyright, while allowing others a way to incorporate the material in their work.

More information

The US copyright office website http://www.copyright.gov gives detailed information about the copyright law written in remarkably clear language. The site also has kid-friendly tutorial in comic-strip format, “Taking the Mystery out of Copyright.”

©2010 Linda G. Aragoni.

Link your stories to students’ lives

Through LinkedIn, I met a graduate student who coordinates the Gerontology Student Association meetings at the University of Southern California. She was intrigued that I am writing books about nursing home visiting and thought other students would also be interested in my experience and perspectives. She invited me to talk to the group via Zoom this past Tuesday.

I organized my presentation in terms of three historical periods—the Baby Boom era of 1945-1970, the Vietnam Era of 1970-1995, and what I call “the Angry Era,” 1995-2020—and the newly-launched Epidemic Era, which will last longer than I will.

The online session was a vivid reminder why I miss teaching college students. On Zoom, I could see them processing what I was saying: it was almost as if students’ skulls were transparent.

What made their eyes light up with an “oh, yeah, I see that” expression were stories about what people did in response to historical events.

As teachers, I fear we often forget that ever since there have been people, those people have learned through stories about their world, how it functions, and how other people in it are likely to behave. People forget facts; they rarely forget how facts affected them. The affect of facts become the stories of a person’s life.

I revisit my teaching in terms of stories.

As I think back on my teaching experiences, I remember stories.

I remember the little boy in the class of multiply handicapped children who banged his leg braces on the floor and yelled with glee, “See what Wuss dooze!” as his hyperactive buddy named Russell, whose birth defect that prevented him from speaking but didn’t keep him from exploring, investigated every aspect of the classroom.

I remember the college freshman who literally broke into a sweat and shook when he was faced with a blank piece of paper. And I remember the story I concocted to get him to write without letting any of the other students notice he had a problem. The class was at 4 p.m. and most students were coming from work so I had the entire class write at the beginning of each class about whatever was on their minds for one minute without stopping , starting with 3×5-inch pieces of paper.

Like me, you also probably remember stories about students you taught far better than your remember their names.

As you prepare to teach future classes, keep alert to opportunities to tell students stories that will fix some important aspect of your material in students’ minds so it can’t readily shake loose. Your students will remember stories you used as teaching tools far better than they will remember facts you tried to drill into their noggins.

I’m going to remember the story Yingxue, my USC gerontology student hostess, told me about how the Chinese traditionally make a peach-shaped, steamed cake with red bean paste for older adults as a birthday gift. For my birthday, which happened to fall on the day of my presentation, Yingxue, drew me this cartoon representation of the Chinese god of longevity, 寿星 (Shou Xing), who holds a peach.

That’s a story and a gift I’m not likely to forget soon.

©2022 Linda Gorton Aragoni

Hardback books promote reading

If you want to encourage reading among students age 10 and up, give them ready access to hardback books other than textbooks.

I was reminded of that this past week as I reread Mark Glickman’s Stolen Words: The Nazi Plunder of Jewish Books. Glickman introduces his story by telling how the UPS driver delivered to him a 1764 copy of the Hilkhot Alfasi, a title Glickman says “literally means ‘Jewish Laws of the Guy from Fez.’” Inside the front cover, he found a decal whose logo featured two concentric starts of David and the caption “Jewish Cultural Reconstruction.”

plundered books
Stacks of boxes of books plundered by Nazis.

A Google search told Glickman that the Jewish Cultural Reconstruction was an organization that sought Jewish and other culturally important works stolen by the Nazis and attempted to return them to their rightful owners. Intrigued, Glickman began digging to find out how his book and millions of other books survived the war.

In the final chapter before the Afterword, Glickman says, “It’s  an irony of modern technology: the more digitized our books become, the more drawn we are to the printed word.”

If his observation needed proof, Glickman provides it in the Afterword in which he tells of showing his copy of the Hilkhot Alfasi to descendants of European Jews attending a religious and educational summer camp in the Pacific Northwest. Glickman says touching the pages afforded those kids a way to connect with the generation of their forebears nearly wiped out during the Holocaust.

You probably can’t show your students rare books like the  Hilkhot Alfasi, but any hardcover, nonfiction you can put within their grasp encourages reading, especially by male students. Paperback books may get passed around, but hardback books get handed down. Guys see hardcover books as serious, useful, important, valuable. If you allow students to borrow your hardcover books, they’ll interpret that as a sign of your respect for them and their abilities—even if they don’t know yet what their abilities are.

One other thing: Don’t go all librarian on this, with borrower cards and due dates. Lend to students as to any of your friends. Turning students into readers is a good thing, even if you lose a book or two in the process.

©2022 Linda Gorton Aragoni

First-day-of-school memories

icon for school

I attended an informational seminar yesterday, which reminded me of classes on the first day of school.

The subject was a financial services firm’s offerings.

The presentation was 10 minutes late starting.

The sponsor didn’t introduce the presenters.

The presenters, a man and a woman, didn’t introduce themselves.

The presenters did not summarize what the firm’s primary service is.

The presenters, did not say where the firm is located, how long it’s been in business, or give any authority to vouch for the firm’s reliability.

The presenters talked to the sponsor and one person who used their service.

The male presenter kept asking if anyone had questions, but no one did.

About 45 minutes after the scheduled start of the session, the man passed out complimentary pens. I didn’t want one, so I left. As I left, I asked for one of the plump folders of printed materials they had not distributed.

The materials were just forms for accessing the company’s services, but nothing about the company or its services or its credibility.

There was, however, in tiny print on the back of the folder, contact information, including a website address that opens to a very attractive landing page. The single-page website explains in accountant-speak what the company does.

The site does not link to authoritative government sites.

It does not offer any testimonials from satisfied clients.

That reminded me of school.

That’s like the first day of school because…

Teachers expect students to know why they should trust their teacher’s expertise.

Teachers expect students to know how they’ll profit from taking those teachers’ courses.

Teachers keep asking for questions from students who have no idea what the subject is about.

Teachers have printed materials for students’ use that provide no benefit students recognize.

Teacher-speak doesn’t tell students how a course is relevant to them.

Teachers’ don’t offer any testimonials from satisfied students.

© 2021 Linda G. Aragoni

Memos help in teaching teens and adults

If you teach courses to teens or adults courses (social studies, biology, bookkeeping, or welding—you name it) you can review class content, introduce new topics, and help students master important on-the-job communication skills by regularly having students produce memos and brief reports.

memo pad and pencil
Nonfiction writing doesn’t get much simpler than the memo.

Despite what you have heard from CEOs of multinational corporations whose direct reports have PhDs from places like Stanford and Harvard, the writing required in entry-level jobs is mostly short expository items like memos and single-page reports or recommendations to higher-ups in the chain of command. Such pieces of writing have to be clearly written and adequately detailed, but they mustn’t be long-winded. They should also take “office politics” into account.

You could require each student to come up with one of the following types of reports each month:

  • A memo describing which part(s) of a particular lesson or unit were the most effective and why the lesson/unit was effective.
  • A suggestion that a specific course-related topic be incorporated into the curriculum and suggesting how the addition could be fit into the course.
  • A memo to you in which the writer recommends an alternative to a pencil-and-paper test that the writer thinks would produce a more accurate picture of students’ understanding of [some particular course topic].
  • A recommendation that a certain information be made available in a particular format. For example, students might like to have slides that show step by step how to do a particular procedure, so they can review the visuals instead of having to rely on their handwritten notes.
  • A recommendation for a particular scheduling change for the following year, such as a class that meets for two, two-and-a-half hour sessions a week instead of the five days of one-hour sessions a week.
  • A report on student satisfaction with a particular textbook, a field trip venue, an outside speaker, etc.
  • A “damage” report on some piece of equipment or some instructional material that does not work properly.
  • And, of course, there’s the vacation request in which students apply for permission to miss class and explain how their work is going to get done in their absence.

You can come up with better ideas for your courses than my generic ones. Smart cookie that you are, you won’t promise to perform what students recommend, but if some student comes up with a good idea, give it a try.

The worst thing that could happen is that it would flop, which could happen with one of your ideas, too.

And trying out students’ ideas shows your heart’s in the right place.

©2020 Linda Aragoni

Don’t throw lulas in students’ way

Teachers are like ordinary people in at least one way: They have a tendency to behave as if everybody has the same background knowledge they have. Unfortunately, not all students’ background experiences aren’t the same as those of their teachers.

Do you know the answer?

As an undergrad, in connection with a psychology class I was taking, I had the opportunity to work a half day a week at a facility run by the Cerebral Palsy Association. I was assigned to assist in a class of multiply-handicapped children who were roughly first through fourth grade age.

One day, one of the students asked me, “What’s a lula?”

I had to sit down and think about that for a minute.

A volunteer had been in earlier in the morning for the weekly music session. One of the pieces students were learning was “The Battle Hymn of the Republic.”

My questioner had been singing, “Glory, Glory had a lula.”

I explained that in the song glory was like saying “wow!” and hallelujah was like saying “I’m really happy.”

Every teacher needs to keep alert for language that would throw a lula in the path of students, particularly if they have any students for whom English is a second language.

©2020 Linda G. Aragoni

Image credit – The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Good Old Songs We Used to Sing, ’61 to ’65, by Osbourne H. Oldroyd, Public Domain

 

Pity the poorly prepared teacher

An opinion piece I read back in the World Before Covid about teachers buying lesson plans on the Teachers Pay Teachers website,  got me thinking about a topic that the author didn’t address: teacher preparation.

header from Education Week article
The title tells Tipton’s position

Author Kat Tipton argues that when she was hired as a first grade teacher, her school didn’t provide her with curriculum and fellow teachers who shared theirs didn’t have time to discuss them with her or for her to observe their teaching.

“I was in over my head and had no idea what I was doing,” Tipton wrote.

Whatever one’s stance on teachers selling their lesson plans (I personally agree with the US Copyright office about sales of works made for hire), it is certainly worth inquiring what Tipton’s undergraduate preparation involved that she was shocked to find she was expected to prepare her own materials.

Did she think her college education profs were following curricula someone had handed to them?

My guess is that she entered teaching after completing a bachelor’s program in elementary education, which presumably would have included student teaching. I spent a week observing in an elementary school classroom before deciding elementary teaching wasn’t for me—people who choose to do that qualify either for sainthood or the psych ward—but that week was enough for me to realize the teachers are on their own.

Didn’t Tipton have to prepare lesson plans when she did student teaching?

When I went for a MACT in the humanities, although I had done my undergrad work in psychology, I was offered a teaching assistantship in my university’s English department. All the other TAs had English education backgrounds; some had been teaching English in public schools for years. We weren’t given a curriculum or even textbooks. The course description in the college catalog was considered adequate direction.

When I started working online with ELA teachers in 2008, the majority who visited my website were teachers with 15 or more years’ experience. They had exhausted themselves looking for materials that worked, but they at least had had materials to use.

I wonder if newly-fledged junior-high and high school English teachers are, like Tipton, over their heads and without any idea what they are doing when facing an ordinary, bricks-and-mortar classroom.

I’m not sure I want to know what the newly-credentialed teacher faces in the fall of 2020 when classroom teaching seems a distant memory.

©2020 Linda G. Aragoni

Teaching in a pandemic: A public service message

Learners do not need to see you in person or even in live video in order to learn long division, the causes of the American Revolution, or subject-verb agreement.

You may want to have face-to-face interactions with students, but it’s not necessary for you to have face-to-face interactions with students in order for you to teach or for them to learn.

Seeing you may even distract students from attending to what you are teaching.

Students forced to become distance learners must have teachers who can distinguish between what’s essential to teach and what’s not essential to teach. Students must have teachers who choose to focus on essentials—even if teacher and students can’t see each other.

Yes, it’s possible that not being able to see you will make students feel less connected to you, less connected to school.

But just because students feel connected to you doesn’t mean the students learn any faster or learn more thoroughly.  Being deeply connected to your students doesn’t make you a better teacher.

Frankly, any persons over 24 whose lives are shattered if they don’t spend face time with 7-year-olds five days a week has a serious problem that discovery of a Covid-19 vaccine will not cure.

©2020 Linda G. Aragoni